Global Commission On Drug Policy (Endnotes)

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1 For detailed analysis of illicit drug markets over the decade, see: Reuter, P. and Trautmann, F. (2009) A Report on Global Illicit Drug Markets 1998-2007. European Commission drogenbericht.pdf Accessed 04.19.11

2 UNODC (2008) 2008 World Drug Report Vienna: United Nations Accessed 04.19.11

3 European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction (2010) Annual Report of the State of the Drugs Problem in Europe Accessed 04.19.11

4 National Drug Intelligence Centre (2010) National Drug Threat Assessment Washington: US Department of Justice Accessed 04.18.11

5 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (2009)
High Commissioner calls for focus on human rights and harm reduction in international drug policy Geneva: United Nations documents/Press/HC_human_rights_and_harm_reduction_drug_policy.  pdf Accessed 04.18.11

6 World Health Organization, UN Office on Drugs and Crime, and Joint UN Program on HIV and AIDS (2009) WHO, UNODC, UNAIDS technical guide for countries to set targets for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment and care for injecting drug users hiv-aids/idu_target_setting_guide.pdf Accessed 04.18.11

7 European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2010)  Harm reduction: evidence, impacts and challenges. Lisbon: EMCDDA Accessed 05.13.11

8 See the European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction resources page on harm reduction: themes/harm-reduction Accessed 04.19.11

9 Mathers, B., Degenhardt, L., Phillips, B., Wiessing, L., Hickman, M., Strathdee, S., Wodak, A., Panda, S., Tyndall, M., Toufik, A., and Mattick, R. for the 2007 Reference Group to the UN on HIV and Injecting drug use (2008) “Global epidemiology of injecting drug use and HIV among people who inject drugs: a systematic review” The Lancet, Volume 372, Issue 9651, pp.1733–1745. Data available at: au//IDURGWeb.nsf/page/IDUepi Accessed 04.16.11 23

10 UNAIDS (2010) UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2010 Accessed 04.18.11

11 WHO (2006) Treatment of Injecting Drug Users with HIV/AIDS: Promoting Access and Optimizing Service Delivery Geneva: World Health Organization treatment/en/index.html Accessed 04.16.11

12 US Institute of Medicine (2006) Preventing HIV Infection among Injecting Drug Users in High Risk Countries: An Assessment of the Evidence Washington: National Academies Press catalog.php?record_id=11731 Accessed 04.16.11

13 Aebi, M. F., Ribeaud D., and Killias, M. (1999) ”Prescription médicale de stupéfiants et délinquance. Résultats des essais Suisses.” Criminologie, vol. 32, n.2

14 Killias, M. and Aebi, M.F. (2000) “The impact of heroin prescription on heroin markets in Switzerland,” Crime Prevention Studies, volume 11, 2000 04-Killias.pdf Accessed 05.08.11

15 Millar, T., Jones, A., Donmall, M. and Roxburgh, M. (2008) Changes in offending following prescribing treatment for drug misuse National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse nta_changes_in_offending_rb35.pdf Accessed 05.08.11

16 National Drug Monitor (2009) NDM Annual Report, 2009 WODC/Trimbos Instituut Accessed 05.08.11

17 van Laar, M. and van Ooyen-Houben, M. (eds.) (2009) Evaluatie van het Nederlandse drugsbeleid WODC/Trimbos Instituut http://www.trimbos. nl/~/media/Files/Gratis percent20downloads/AF0884 percent20Evaluatie percent20van percent20het percent20Nederlands percent20drugsbeleid. ashx Accessed 05.08.11

18 E. Schatz, K. Schiffer and J.P. Kools (2011) The Dutch treatment and social support system for drug users IDPC Briefing Paper, January 2011 program Accessed 05.08.11

19 Henman, A. and Metaal, P. (2009) Coca Myths Transnational Institute Drugs and Democracy Program debate13 Accessed 04.21.11

20 Jelsma, M. (2011) Lifting the Ban on Coca Chewing: Bolivia’s proposal to amend the 1961 Single Convention Series on Legislative Reform of Drug Policies, No.11. Transnational Institute ban-coca-chewing Accessed 05.08.11

21 Costa, A.M. (2008) Making drug control ‘fit for purpose’: Building on the UNGASS Decade E/CN.7/2008/CRP.17 commissions/CND-Session51/CND-UNGASS-CRPs/ECN72008CRP17E.pdf Accessed 04.20.11

22 Godfrey C., Stewart D., and Gossop, M. (2004) “Economic analysis of costs and consequences of the treatment of drug misuse: 2-year outcome data from the National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS)” Addiction 99 (6) pp.697-707

23 Reuter, P. and Pollack, H. (2006) “How much can treatment reduce national drug problems?” Addiction 101 (3) pp. 341-347

24 Carnevale, J. (2009) Restoring the Integrity of the Office of National Drug Control Policy Written Testimony to the Domestic Policy Subcommitee of the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform congress Accessed 04.21.11

25 25 Bühringer, G., Farrell, M., Kraus, L., Marsden, J., Pfeiffer-Gerschel, T., Piontek, D., Karachaliou, K., Künzel, J. and Stillwell, G. (2009) Comparative analysis of research into illicit drugs in the European Union Luxembourg: European Commission, Directorate-General Justice, Freedom and Security EN_report-EN.pdf Accessed 05.13.11

26 Hughes, C.E. and Stevens, A. (2010) “What Can We Learn from the Portuguese Decriminalization of Illicit Drugs?” British Journal of Criminology Volume 50, Issue 6, pp.999-1022

27 Hughes, C.E. and Stevens, A. (2007) The Effects of Decriminalization of Drug Use in Portugal Oxford: Beckley Foundation Accessed 04.20.11

28 Greenwald, G. (2009) Drug Decriminalization in Portugal: Lessons for Creating Fair and Successful Drug Policies Cato Institute Accessed 05.07.11

29 Reinarman, C., Cohen, P. and Kaal, H. (2004) “The Limited Relevance of Drug Policy: Cannabis in Amsterdam and in San Francisco” American Journal of Public Health vol. 94 pp.836–842

30 Fetherston, J. and Lenton, S. (2007) Effects of the Western Australian Cannabis Infringement Notification Scheme on Public Attitudes, Knowledge and Use: Comparison of Pre- and Post Change Data Perth: National Drug Research Institute publications/T177.pdf Accessed 04.20.11

31 Room, R., Fischer, B., Hall, W., Lenton, S. and Reuter, P. (2008) The Global Cannabis Commission Report Oxford: Beckley Foundation http://www. Accessed 04.20.11

32 Becker, G.S., Murphy, K.M. and Grossman, M. (2004) The Economic Theory of Illegal Goods: The Case of Drugs National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 10976 Accessed 05.13.11

33 Nutt, D., King, L.A., Saulsbury, W. and Blakemore, C. (2007) “Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse” Lancet Vol. 369 (9566) pp.1047-53

34 Hallam, C. and Bewley-Taylor, D. (2010) “Mapping the World Drug Problem: Science and Politics in the United Nations Drug Control System,” International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 21, (1), 2010, pp. 1-3

35 Caulkins, J., Reuter, P. Iguchi, M.Y. and Chiesa, J. (2005) How Goes the “War on drugs”? An Assessment of US Problems and Policy Santa Monica, California: RAND RAND_OP121.pdf Accessed 04.20.11

36 UNODC (2008) 2008 World Drug Report Vienna: United Nations Accessed 04.19.11

37 Lalander, P. and Salasuo, M. (Eds.) (2005) “Drugs and Youth Cultures: Global and Local Expressions” Helsinki: Nordic Council for Alcohol and Drug Research

38 Manning, P. (Ed.) (2007) Drugs and Popular Culture: Drugs, Media and Identity in Contemporary Society Devon: Willan Publishing

39 Buchanan, J. (2004) “Missing Links? Problem drug use and social exclusion” Probation Journal vol. 51 no. 4 pp. 387-397

40 UNODC/WHO (2008) Principles of Drug Dependence Treatment Principles-of-Drug-Dependence-Treatment-March08.pdf Accessed 04.16.11

41 Bewley-Taylor, D., Hallam, C. and Allen, R. The Incarceration of Drug Offenders: An Overview Beckley Foundation/International Centre for Prison Studies Report_16_2_FINAL_EN.pdf Accessed 04.19.11

42 Sevigny, E. and Caulkins, J.P. (2004) “Kingpins or Mules? An Analysis of Drug Offenders Incarcerated in Federal and State Prisons” Criminology and Public Policy 3:3, 401-434

43 MacCoun, R.J. and and Reuter, P. (2001) Drug War Heresies: Learning from Other Vices, Times and Places Cambridge University Press

44 UNODC (2008) Drug trafficking as a security threat to West Africa Vienna: United Nations Studies/Drug-Trafficking-WestAfrica-English.pdf Accessed 05.08.11

45 Werb, D., Rowell, G., Guyatt, G., Kerr, T., Montaner, J. and Wood, E. (2011) “Effect of drug law enforcement on drug market violence: A systematic review” International Journal of Drug Policy vol. 22 pp. 87–94

46 Werb, D., Rowell, G., Guyatt, G., Kerr, T. Montaner, J. and Wood, E. (2010)
Effect of Drug Law Enforcement on Drug-related Violence: Evidence from a Scientific Review Urban Health Research Initiative, British Colombia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS ICSDP-1_-_FINAL_1.sflb.ashx Accessed 04.19.11

47 McSweeney, T., Turnbull, P.J. and Hough, M (2008) Tackling Drug Markets & Distribution Networks in the UK London: UK Drug Policy Commission Accessed 04.19.11

48 Metaal, P. and Youngers, C. eds. (2011) Systems Overload: Drug Laws and Prisons in Latin America Transnational Institute/Washington Office on Latin America Systems_Overload/TNI-Systems_Overload-def.pdf Accessed 05.16.11

49 Perry, C. L., Komro, K. A., Veblen-Mortenson, S., Bosma, L. M., Farbakhsh, K., Munson, K. A., et al. (2003) “A randomized controlled trial of the middle and junior high school D.A.R.E. and D.A.R.E. Plus programs” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 157(2), pp. 178-184

50 Office of National Drug Control Policy (2010) National Drug Control Strategy 2010 Accessed 05.13.11

51 “Obama: Drugs Should be Treated as a Public Health Problem” Interview with Barack Obama on CBS News: http://www.cbsnews. com/8301-503544_162-20029831-503544.html Accessed 05.13.11


Bernardo Sorj
Ilona Szabó de Carvalho
Miguel Darcy de Oliveira


Dr. Alex Wodak, Australian Drug Law Reform Foundation

Ethan Nadelmann, Drug Policy Alliance

Martin Jelsma, Transnational Institute

Mike Trace, International Drug Policy Consortium


Centro Edelstein de Pesquisas Sociais
Instituto Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Open Society Foundations
Sir Richard Branson, founder and chairman of Virgin Group (Support provided through Virgin Unite)

(available at

Demand reduction and harm reduction
Dr. Alex Wodak

Drug policy, criminal justice and mass imprisonment
Bryan Stevenson

Assessing supply-side policy and practice: eradication and alternative development
David Mansfield

The development of international drug control: lessons learned and strategic challenges for the future
Martin Jelsma

Drug policy: lessons learned and options for the future
Mike Trace

The drug trade: the politicization of criminals and the criminalization of politicians
Moisés Naím


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